the hidden hand
Why beliefs never became matter – the Proof.
I had a look at the major pantheons of the human Gods - and saw that each pantheon had 5 key attributes. These attributes were included in the behavioural descriptions of all of the Gods in every pantheon.
In fact ALL of this Ethnological data is simply what humanity remembers of the way they were - those 'elder gods' before the fall of Atlantis.
All the alleged old ways are not some natural progression of mankind from some stone-age state.
I needed to find some logic or reason to the human races need to wallow about in the mud and vegetation - for instance - what was the distraction ?
The 5 attributes of the Gods seemed to be a recipe for a never ending and cruel soap opera.
To see how they equate, we look at the expectations of the Human Race and how we need a saviour or messiah to help us out - but which is true and which is false -
In order to analyse it all - I grouped the key components of each godly attribute into sets.
The doctrine of objectivism that has been emerging today has it that man is nothing more than an animal - an organic creature, imperfect in a shitty world, sharing the food chain with other animals, ruled by passion and blood and nature red in tooth and claw - man the beast. The more I look into this barbarism, the more I see it to be a Nihilist invention or perception. For in the cosmology of the ‘Gods of Animism’ - we are no more than dogs. We have no empathy, Grace or illumination, no understanding of physics and reality, we have no strength and we have no intellect.
The world of the warring tribal monkeys of mankind has for millennia been about ‘piles of corpses, blood, slaves and gold' to paraphrase Mein Kampf 'my struggle' by Adolph Hitler, [1925 CE].
Thomas Carlyle in Sartor Resartus [1876 CE] was at a loss to understand confrontations of aggressive negation from some 'underclass'. c.800 BCE, Plato, in Phaedo [Thomson editorial] alludes to some systematic process of soul combat and death by 'drowning' - and even John Lennon with 'all you need is love' wasn't able to stem the tide in the late 20th Century.
The main geographical components of the Human Condition are:
CLIMATE, TOPOGRAPHY, GEOLOGY, VEGETATION, AVAILABLE WATER, ANIMAL LIFE, Out of the fabric of our World we make our Gods and we make our reality - a mudbath or bloodbath - but certainly out of that we make no Interstellar Civilisation, no Free Energy, No Galactic Patronage - no Powerful Allies, not yet !
T H E BASIC INGREDIENTS - THE RAW MATERIALS
There are 5 major aspects to all the Pantheons;
Fistly we’ll look at what the Gods are supposed to achieve - then we’ll look at the stuff that Humanity have traditionally associated with them.
The Gods: [allegedly] they protect us, they nurture us, they destroy us and or they illuminate us, but they don't give us the controls of a good spaceship.
1. PROTECTIVE ROLE (masculine)Harnessed land and artefact production for defence.
2. NURTURING ROLE (feminine)Harnessed land and its powers for perpetuity.
3. DESTRUCTIVE ROLE.Negation of all structural values and the organic equilibrium.
4. HARBINGERUnidentifiable aspect which would confer an overall advantage.
5. VOYEURGods indulging and excelling at all Human activities concerned with learning extensions or tools which augment the Human ego for personal evolution.
The following are HUMAN cultural associations with Gods throughout history :
i.e. The raw cultural material and ‘colour’. This is distilled from accounts of the various pantheons and their cultural ingredients objects, global associations, environmental significators and alleged social benefits and cues. Widely speaking, the presence of and labelling of and colour of cultural objects appear arbitrary – but not their implicit and often explicit significance.
They may not necessarily, universally signify their allegiance outwardly to any professed ideology, but the cultural ideologies themselves do fall into several broad social attitudes and idioms.
1. PROTECTIVE ASPECT [present in literature]
Gold, Grey, Blue, Yellow, Red Green, Black. Hawk Vegetation Mirror Cat Lotus Sword, Serpent Seashell Lightning, Dog Tree iron shoe, Lion Elephant red dragon, blue eye, horned moon, black ram, head of a bearded man
2. NURTURING ASPECT [present in literature]
blue, green, gold, red, black cauldron tree crystal rod hand mares head bird amulets owl star apples spiral ibis dawn iris water dolphins peacock falcon seashell child3. DESTRUCTIVE ASPECT [present in literature]
fire, ice, lava, black basalt, rocks sun, moon, lightning, waves. torch, spears, red mace, axe, skull withered tree, sacrifice, chariot, fever, poison, broken vessels deceit, dragons, trident, horn, snakes, white silks, decapitated heads, bestiality, rats, reed pipes black opals, single eye, prophesy claw, lizard, wealth.
4. Harbinger / Messiah ASPECT
FALSE negates powers confers wisdom sells variables
TRUE GIVES KEYS SOLUTIONS
requires human values/context conferred to the recipe
5. VOYEUR ASPECT – The Tools/theatrical props of Lord of Evil.
SNAKE, MONKEY, BULL, DWARF LIGHTNING, MOON, WAVES MUSIC, MAGICAL GIFTS, GIFTS OF MAGICAL SPELLS, IMMUNITY IN BATTLE, AUGMENTED YOUTH, GIFTS OF ABILITY IN SPORT AND BATTLE, RISKY MAGICAL ARTEFACTS DIAMONDS GOLD GIFTS OF UNFAIR ADVANTAGE IN RETURN FOR SOMETHING
So like some bad joke - the belief systems of humanity for millennia have evolved around some dark stuff that’s nihilistic and some nice watery nurturing stuff that is reminiscent of the watery Atlantean princess who first created humanity in Union with one of the good Elohim.
There are to my mind 5 sets of ingredients and 5 themes – but my next task was to translate these components into Human values so that we can more instantaneously relate to the ideas.
I then reduce these behavioural and aesthetic aspects down to the metaphysical characteristics that can be attributed to the 5 god themes.
Basically all the Godly nonsense of the Elder Gods and the way they have interphased with humanity to derail their evolution can be put into sets of pros and cons. At that point when simplified down to a few basic ingredients that don't involve references to skulls and spears and bones but put in more scientific language we have the beginning of a bit of logic and reason.
This is step 2.
The following are all the things we have been taught to expect from our Elder Gods and, or, Evil’s illusions. Us poor humans, us imperfect humans always need a bit of augmentation - and non-telepathic - we are always at a loss to these cunning and evil ‘telepathic bastards’.
I have simply distilled the scary detail of all these belief systems down to the basic human psychological attributes that they have come to represent for sets A-F of the ‘Gods programme’.
Here is a list of typical human ideas we associate with the behaviour of the gods.
set A. PROTECTIVEmind/intellect, decision, efficient aggression, speed, manoeverability power, invincibility, stealth, wisdom, environmental knowledge use of powerful artefact, destructive
set B NURTURINGequilibrium, growth, fruition, future magic, endowed by the land children.
set C DESTRUCTIONgreed, jealousy, hate, anger, vanity ingratitude to God loss of human values
set D & F Harbinger/ Messiahprovides solutions to Destruction (restoring equilibrium)
D. Absolutely trueF. Absolutely falseset E VOYEUR - Temptation
THE GODS PROGRAMME
I then prepare the metaphysical descriptions of the 5 sets so that they can be equated in a logical hypothesis. [using symbolic logic] i.e. sentential calculus_______________________________________________________
Can you imagine - a human being making logic out of 12 millennia of blood and gore - it isn't human –
The next step is to further distil all the common aspects of the ingredients of each of those sets - remember step 1 was full of skulls and colours and artefacts, step 2 was actually what all these things have come to psychologically associate/ represent to the human race, and at this stage, step 3, we further distil these associations contained in sets A – F into more compact definitions – i.e. we give these sets of associations in A-F a theme - this is called metaphysics. [step 3]
THE SETS now become lighter and easier to handle.
A. protective.some aspect working towards the constant assistance of or decisive intervention on behalf of, one specified geopolitical unit.
B. nurturing.some aspect working towards the maintenance of a constant resource base from which stability may evolve a perpetual harvest.
C. destruction.any aspects which negate the consistency of A&B
F. harbinger/messiahabsolute solution to the imbalances created by C
or D. subversion and disguise of the true solution to destruction.
E. voyeur.An inconsistent benefactor or nuisance excelling at all human play or battle activity, whose various perfections and gifts foster inadequacy and therefore the temptation into Human excesses
where set F is the true messianic solution or the false messianic solution
At this point we now have several useable ingredients.
What the following jargon or logic really says is that :
1& 2 things are far from normal - are bad and need a solution F, then for some combination of 'godly' participants - there is some temptation. temptation leads to destruction and deceit - 12000 years of evidence says yes to that. But something good can negate that - the key system being maybe the return of Christ or Beings from offworld, some intervention or some overwhelming truth that will empower love and justice.
Sentential and Predicate calculus are academic programming tools - and ontology means how things relate and connect up within themselves - the consistency of relationships within a system. Anima is the academic name given to the animal within us - as in Animism - the worship of vegetation and the beasts.
THE FOLLOWING SET OF EQUATIONS DESCRIBE THE LOGICAL OF PARADISE LOST AND SOME PARADISE REGAINED IN SENTENTIAL AND PREDICATE CALCULUS - BASED ON THE FIVE SETS OF THE ANIMA CYCLE [ABCDE] AND THE ONE KEY SET [F] (true or false messiah set)
PARADISE LOST AND SOME PARADISE REGAINED.
1. Q = equilibrium
2. Q < standard empirical norm [N]at this moment in time.i.e. Q < N
3. if (Q
4. if (A+B) --> therefore X((AE+B) v (A+EB) v (AE+EB))
for all human equilibrium, there is some temptation X
5. if X --> therefore ((C) v (C+D))for some temptation, there is destruction or destruction and deceit.
6. if F= ( ¬ (CvD))
The key system is equal to the negation of destruction and deceit.
7. ((C+D)v(CvD))+F =S
Destruction and or deceit, plus the key system F[messiah], is equal to some solution S.
I present this analysis hoping that Humanity can break free from the old ways of death and destruction. 12000 years of worship, hope and delusion appear to be reduced down to a 7 line equation - which could theoretically be programmable.
7 lines of logic describe 12,000 years of angst - an unbroken cycle of despair.
There is still time for us to get our act together - for as the next model will show - there is an opportunity to break the cycle now.
PART 2. From here to Doomsday on a Pocket Calculator
The Human Race for the past 12 millennia since the fall of Atlantis have been utterly predictable - as the following model will show.
The idea that there are peaks and troughs in civilisation, rises and falls of empires, wars, renaissance, dark ages and space ages we are all familiar with. What might give us a hard time however is just how predictable we all are.
Ok so I started the model on a pocket calculator and recently scientists have been more sophisticated by inventing the same idea as Novelty Theory - but let’s put it this way - highly advanced evil Aliens would be using something much more sophisticated than Microsoft Humanity version 1.0a
The idea is based on a very simple piece of mathematics which produces peaks and troughs over a period of time.
All the numbers can be produced on the cheapest 8 digit calculator
When analysed - those peaks and troughs seem to correspond in time to the ancient civilisations of the Northern hemisphere starting around 10,000 BC [as predicted by the new datings of the Sphinx etc], through; Sumeria, Egypt, Greece, Rome, troughs at the dark Ages and Peaks at a maximum tech for the first time around 2000 AD - then, as predicted by the latest research into Mayan calendars and prophesies - a massive trough after the year 2000 AD !!
Although the peaks and troughs themselves may also be deemed of arbitrary construction, though some do appear to be roughly in the right place e.g. Greece greater and more significantly technical than Rome, such that although Rome was a massive civilised and conquering conglomerate, it never as a civilisation surpassed its predecessors in invention. Rome surpassed itself on the scale of implementation of those inventions that it borrowed, conquered or assimilated from its past or its vassals. [Chant, C, 1999, ‘Pre-Industrial Cities and Technology’, Routeledge Keegan Paul’ ]
However, the best test of the model that is necessary and sufficient for it to ‘predict’ as both Karl Popper and Dulhem would have it even in their diametrically opposed stances within the Philosophy of Science i.e. Popper’s empirical Conjecture and Refutation, 1963, that suggested test and falsify and discard, and Dulhem’s ‘Instrumentalism’ of the ilk that if it ain’t broke don’t fix it. Such as; designs for Bi-planes or Dirigibles are a great working physical and mathematical construct – so why change a good thing.
Each stance requires rigid prediction within the terms of its own modelling strategy however.
The peaks and Troughs Model however, asserts a start point for the first row of its computational digits as at the passing of the last Ice Age in Neolithic Mesopotamia. From the Neolithic c.a. 9000 BCE, the emergence of agriculture and tools that was eventually brought into perspective by archaeologist V Gordon Childe (1892-1957) by his modelling of their emergence, enabled the creation of an agricultural and urban revolution. First presented in ‘Man Makes Himself’ in 1936.
He would assert that the driving influence of tool making, subsequent specialisation and trade and infrastructure pushed out the boundaries of resource gathering, exchange, barter and civilised evolution and organisation for defence or attack. (discussed later below). This driving engine of civilisation and artefact production is represented by the X squared constant in the model.
Sufficient for the ‘Peaks and Troughs Model though, is that it attains in its own right a peak of tool making sophistication, capable of manipulating the highest energy investment strategies and products that only a highly technically advanced electronics industry can produce.
If that can happen once in the model, then it would mark the 20th Century and if it happened again – it could be predicted when something better, or worse, may evolve on the basis that the time scale supplied by Mesopotamian archaeology for the Neolithic was correct.
It doesn’t have to mean the end of civilisation though if an absolute disaster were to be predicted – for if science could achieve some interstellar or even interplanetary destiny, then the influx of new resources could reshape the technological profile and success of the planets infrastructure.
Antecedent to the 20th Century though, a planetary disaster was predicted by this model !
In line with Mayan ideologies about 2013 CE being a year of Earthly discord between the planets surface and the Star such that the plates of rock on which the continents sit would move about creating disasters, earthquakes, volcanism, tsunami etc etc
The 2013A CE disaster calculation for this pocket calculator only represents the current resource base of our planet bereft of technological achievement - and if other planets and other resources were added to the equation Now - the destiny of the Model will Definitely Change.
It goes on with more peaks and troughs into the future.
if you check the following model out, and take an 'Instrumentalist cf. Dulhem'
approach - i.e. it predicts, it is therefore a useful if reductionist model.
1. Intro to the Doomsday calculator
2. The code in BASIC
3. The assumptions
4. The metaphysics of the numbers
The Doomsday Calculator.
It is based on a very simple piece of mathematics which produces peaks and troughs over a period of time.
All the numbers can be produced on the cheapest 8 digit calculator
When analysed - those peaks and troughs seem to correspond in time to the ancient civilisations of the Northern hemisphere starting around 10,000 BCE [as predicted by the new datings of the Sphinx etc], through; Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Egypt, Greece, Rome, troughs at the dark Ages and Peaks at a maximum tech for the first time around 2000 CE - then, as predicted by the latest research into Mayan calendars and prophesies - a massive trough after the year 2000 CE !!!!!! ????
It goes on with more peaks and troughs into the future.
The peaks and troughs are numbers on a scale of eg. 1-8 produced by the simple maths - and 1 would be a hunter gatherer and 8 would be a high tech society.
[there is a detailed interpretation of the model which you can see below.]
The mathematics in the model also have mileage because it is based upon a very simple law found operating in all of nature and the cosmos. [power law]
The Exponential Power Law in nature is based upon observations of cell growth in e.g. bacteria, or the empirically measured performance of field strength in gravity between mass, or between particles, or in electricity, the notion of square roots or exponential relationships. The exponential power law therefore is a Universal attribute of matter, including cell growth in Human biology, and as has been recently noted by Kurt Lewin, in the psychological Field Strength between personalities. (1952) ‘Field theory in psychology’.
Although by using x-squared as a reductionist linear construct that will tend to iron-out many local contextual details in the process – the overall goal of the model was to have a strategy that would illustrate the emergence of a highly technical civilisation with tools that represent very massive investment in specialisation and the social infrastructure.
In that respect, I think that it succeeded.
In Basic, the code is;
Line 01. x=1.1111111
Line 02. for n=0 to 300 [or as many other iterations etc]
Line 03. print n, x
Line 04. x=x^2
Line 05. if x>99999999 then x=x/10000000
Line 06. next n
[thanks to Martin Lowe of Miracle Productions for the 1999 CE Visual basic formulae and code printout of my original 1976 calculations.]
That’s us in 6 lines of code - 12 millennia of nothing very much and a great deal of pain.
The peaks and troughs are numbers on a scale of e.g. 1-8 produced by the simple maths - and 1 would be a hunter gatherer and 8 would be a high tech society. There is a detailed interpretation of the model which you can see below.
The mathematics in the model also have mileage because it is based upon a very simple law found operating in all of nature and the cosmos the laws of exponential growth in natural systems.
When it first gets to the number 99999999 I assumed that that's the 20th Century.
Then I took the date of Stone Age Civilisation/Ice Age, i.e. Neolithic Mesopotamia and calculated the intervals in between, and got some results that I could deal with e.g. Greece 800BCE, Rome etc, and what comes after the 20th century is a big dip.
It appears to predict that without an input of new 'social fabric' from off planet that there will be a substantial deterioration in social fabric on this planet in the 21st century.
Answers to peer reviewed scientific criticism.
1. In no way does the model depend upon the number of digits in the string being fixed - the choice could be arbitrary such that there was enough complexity in the arithmetic to allow for a reasonable amount of detail. The 8 digit pocket calculator model proved sufficient.
2. The 'doubling effect' chosen to act upon those digits is to a certain extent also arbitrary - though something akin to 'fibonacci' and the doubling trends seen in nature and laws of physics and chemistry was preferred. More sophisticated attentuations that accounted for more sophisticated criteria may introduce un-necessary errors and ‘a posteriori’ after the fact assumptions. For in dealing with a known natural power law and constant, the model would tend to produce more ‘physical’ rather than ‘synthetic and contrived’ results and bias.
3. The only fixed requisite was a mathematical 'overflow' to simulate population extinction upon exhaustion of resources.
4. - the maximum criteria for this model occurs in an obvious way.
5. I don't make claims for a direct 1 to 1 correlation of data.
6. It predicts according to its own criteria
This model was invented 22 years ago before all the Millennia and Mayan stuff, in fact when I was a school boy in 1976, I first sat down with a pocket calculator and did those x - squared multiplications and cancellations at the overflow and wrote it all down.
This model co-incides with the Mayan Prophesies and the idea that some disaster or other may occur early in the 21st century.
The maths and model are amazingly simple
The next part of this chapter will illustrate how a simple mathematical principle based on a natural power law exponential and teleologic, can model the immensely sophisticated technological artistry of Human Civilisation on something as small as a pocket calculator.
A $5 pocket calculator can achieve the Oracular status of prophesy model because basically the power law used is an illustration of a natural law. Plant Growth, Animal Populations, Bacteria etc all double up and grow in this way.
This doubling causes peaks, then, when the local resources run out, the populations crash into a trough.
It was true to say though, that when I presented this model to a Doctor of Human Ecology at the Department of Human Ecology, Buccleugh Street, Edinburgh University in the late 1970’s he suggested in dismissal that; ‘we cannot predict all the ills of the world on a pocket calculator.’
That is of course true, but then as a young man interested in Human Ecology I had never heard of the very famous V Gordon Childe and quite obviously, neither had he. Childe’s ideas totally substantiate the ontology of my Peaks and Troughs Model. But then you cannot rationally predict that all the PhD's of the world seem to get PhD’s for 'sounding as-if they are attentive to their studies'.
The model is made by taking a basic set of numbers and repeatedly squaring them till they reach the limit of the calculator at which time the impetus of the growth is taken as expended at the overflow, the overflow status is then removed, and the process begins again utilising the overflow numbers etc.
here’s the philosophy of the science :
PEAKS AND TROUGHS IN CIVILISATION.
These are the philosophical assumptions upon which the Peaks and Troughs Model is founded. [there are 6]
Lemma 1. Atoms [numbers] when acted upon by a unifying and generating principle (natural power law) combine to form complexes of varying magnitudes. The natural power law can be attributed to the tool-making activities of mankind at the most basic and biological level of ergonomic activity. In terms of social energy manipulation by power needed to move mass from A to B through a common C the rhetoric and politic of organisation is sufficient only in a basic biochemical terms. For this scenario, only an existential state of conscious senses is needed to identify the need for the acquisition and the retention of energy by tool-making and construction in any given environment.
Lemma 2. In Analogy, Humanity acts on simple atomic components to form complexes of great magnitudes - artefacts capable of eventually evolving advanced technological society whilst exploiting a continuously accessible and constantly relevant resource base.
Lemma 3. The Doubling, exponential power law most seen in nature from plant cells to fibonacci exponentials, gravity and particle behaviour, and also in psychological transference. In these existential aspects of demography represents, generally, tendencies in all natural growth and the behaviour of natural systems.
The simple exponential X2 has been chosen to model this doubling effect though it is recognised that some natural functions that are exponential in tendency are attenuated by the intrusion of some other contextual factors. [i.e. The pure maths of growth and doubling are interfered with by the chaos of the natural world]
Lemma 4. There are various constraints on exponential growth:
i.e. When the resources run out chaos follows. [lack of resource, raw material, competition, and exceeding the parameters of the umbrella under which growth occurs, exposes the process of growth i.e. the growing system and structure to direct competition or entropy/breakdown, but as in the nature of biology, as represented by Langton C, and Kauffman S, in Levy S, ‘Artificial life, 1993, pub Penguin. ISBN 0-14-023105-6 self regulating systems tend to self regulation and the emergence of sophisticated states.
e.g. Kauffman S, ‘Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution’ Oxford University Press, 1992 and also; ‘Autocatalyic Sets of Proteins’, Journal of Theoretical Biology, 119 (1986): 1-24.
Lemma 5. The fixed limits of the model depict the capacity of different magnitudes of chaos outside of the civil umbrella to degrade growth.
In reality, the 'Fixed Limits' of this simple model would themselves be variable, as each and every system is a context and umbrella of some other, and each is in flux to some extent.
It is the shaping power of restriction which helps to perpetuate the evolution of artefacts with time. [cf. Darwinism 1859 CE].
Lemma 6. An artefact is a tool which enables the energies of the context to be competitively accessed. It is a product of an energy transaction between two systems occurring in such a way as to facilitate easy energy exchange and access. Along the lines of least resistance. It makes it possible to fulfil the most potential with the least energy expenditure. [most benefit for least cost]
Such an artefact can be a tool, lever, a well travelled goat track, or the route of an electrical discharge as in Ohm’s Law or Fajan’s Rules in Physics and Chemistry, both exponentially derived relationships between high to low materials through a common medium.
At a higher level of material organisation and civilisation, artefacts appear to be more greatly invested in – in terms of complexity of tool making systems that have predicated greater and more efficient tools within the constraints imposed by the relative constancy of industrial supplies of energies and materials and capacity to compete for them.
It depicts the capacity of the umbrella of resources under which man operates i.e. the minerals and resources, soils and harvest as the capacity of an eight digit calculator to square a row of numbers.
The powers of the numbers most cheap calculators can hold as:
10 to the power of 8.
It depicts the fabric the stuff we then make throughout history:- the numbers which represent these resources as being raised to various powers or levels of crystallisation (sophistication of artefacts and their systems).
These powers of numbers represent the structure and mechanics of the evolving civilisation - where the quality of the fabric (high numbers) indicate a significant degree of refinement, crafting, and the social and biological necessities of behaviourism in social groups whilst using the available resource base.
For the purposes of this reductionist model – the aspirations of social Graces within evolutionary intelligence and spiritual conduct have been reduced to animistic levels of consciousness called ‘epiphenomenalism’. This doctrine, inherent in biochemical knowledge and other allegations about the quality of soul suggest that the masses have selfish responses to pain and pleasure. These ideas were espoused by e.g. the Platonic and Hedonist Sophist schools in Greece and later in the 19th Century and 20th century in terms of more indutrialised societies by Bentham and John Stuart Mill in the Utilitarian Doctrine. As a judgemental model for quality of personal spirit in a person of seven score years and ten these ideas can be seen to be shabby and are elsewhere refuted here. Criticism of the lack of individual spiritual integrity and capacity for selflessness within the mass of bright individuals that contribute to making the loaves of bread for such philosophers is unacceptable.
In terms of overall biological responses over large numbers and large periods of time, where people agree to come back or be born or even just discover how nice the mud and wargames are here for the very first time. Here, we even get to discover how to dodge the pains of the Inquisition or the Gestapo. Thus JS Mill provides a good social and human interest model to substantiate the pains and pleasures of driving a very hard bargain all the way from being a Childe in Mesopotamia in 9000 BCE to the dark satanic Mills and Mills bombs of the 19th and 20th Century.
It wasn’t really all that much fun, but we got here anyway .. !
Which is pretty neat for a cheap plastic calculator but that is called metaphysics and we are producing a simple model. If it weren’t for the fact that I got a fright when I saw exactly where the high tek stuff happens, and calibrated it from the rough date of the Atlantean deluge - and got another fright - I would have dismissed this stuff completely by now - for after all it was only the idle speculation of an eighteen year old school boy in the mid 1970’s.
The thing that keeps it all going is the x-squared – that’s us breeding and building and consuming and expanding - just as cells do mathematically in plant stems and bodies.
The exponential power law, which represents the constant application which provides the cohesion necessary for social expansion.
The overall picture is one of structure building up, overstepping its limitations and deteriorating or degrading to more chaotic states, and the complete picture is not unlike the growth format 'real' History was alleged to have taken from the fall of Eden/Atlantis/Thule/Hesperides/Olympus etc
In order to calibrate the results to determine any meaningful correspondence with real archaeological data it is assumed that the 20th Century was the first period in time to significantly fulfil the maximum criterion for the model.
We invented PC computers and jets in the 20th century.
This makes the start date somewhere in the region of 12000BC.
The 'Peaks and Troughs' model demonstrates the way that
social fabric is built and invested in by using as its basic bricks - powers of numbers - where 10 to the power 1 is the most basic, and 10 to the power 7 is the most invested.
Let the capacity of the umbrella or environment/resource base under which we grow be represented by the capacity of an eight digit calculator to cope with the exponential function x2 acting upon an eight digit number.
For the purposes of the model, Man will operate upon/start with the most basic and low powered significant number that is representative of an eight digit system i.e. 1.1111111 - well we’ve just been created and just been flooded out.
This represents the primal unit of useful environmental possibilities open to early Man. E.g. Fire, flint and stone and the odd buffalo and cave.
Optimal use of the environment/resource base will be realised in the context of the model when a number less than or equal to but not exceeding the capacity of the eight digit display is attained.
I.e. Double up as much as possible without triggering the overflow.
As the numbers build up as we work away - we must make sure that we don’t hit the overflow - overstretch our resources or our little society will crash as quickly as a windows 95 operating system.
The number of digits (8), is deemed sufficient to illustrate the fluctuations of diverse factors, but is up to a point arbitrary i.e. the same model could employ 9 or 10 digits but not much fewer than eight in order to retain an aspect of diversity.
Basically a 6-10 or plus any number of digits calculator can do this - it doesn’t have to be eight - the number is arbitrary.
As Man's constant growth and drive maximises etc. applies itself to the digits of the resources, a successfully used resource base is represented by a high numerical power. The assumption is that for social, population and technical growth, Man tends to act with or upon smaller units to construct and invest time in larger units, converting resource base into socio-economic fabric and artefacts.
In this respect, Man's use of power law logistics is as mechanistic as any unintelligent system in the Cosmos. I.e. Our growth is mathematically similar to any beast or plant.
The eight digit ceiling that the operation of the function takes us to (i.e. all the possibilities of growth that can occur under the umbrella of the resources) is the point where the demand for resources to invest in the socio-economic fabric overrides the capacity of the environment to provide, and development is halted by the limitations of the resource base. I.e. We use it all up and crash.
The ceiling could be defined as the most socio-economic fabric attained, produced and manufactured as a result of competitive investment - where demand for growth does not outstrip the capacity to supply.
The higher the powers benchmark left at the overflow, the more
successful and technological the society as it Fell. - where the most successful result at calculator overflow is 9.9999999
At this stage, the overflow has been reached and the growth of numbers on the display has been systematically deteriorated or knocked-back by a constant in the calculator which is representative of the disintegrative properties of an overloaded system, the entropy of which tends to disintegrate the larger system down to more basic but logistically sound smaller systems and levels of organisation. Demand outstrips supply.
e.g. a Rural agronomy can return to Barbarism.
The anarchy that follows overpopulation and collapse of supply in terms of this Mechanistic model, can be defined as 'units of production with no capacity to sustain the evolution of socio-economic fabric'
At this stage, the re-application of Mans' driving power law constant either maintains or betters levels of the past, or the fabric of civilisation deteriorates further, taking the level of numerical growth or 'socio-economic integrity' with it.
The remnants or 'husk' of accrued evolution - the failed society, remains as a number related to that which it once was - and is then redeveloped.
At intervals determined by environment and resource there will be periods of optimal numbers or fabric - these are peaks in Civilisation.
The following narrative is a rough guide to the semantics/reasoning behind the interpretation of the power levels of the numbers -generally speaking, each power level represents an increasing level of sophistication of artefact, information, technology and social fabric.
1.0000000 ... The population groups into a society. e.g. Nomadic
10.000000 ... The Society is coherent e.g. Barbarism.
100.00000 ... A Coherent society may organise to develop the
use of resources e.g. Agronomy/trade
1000.0000 ... An efficient use of resource base provides
security for the organised society e.g. technical
specialisation – mining
10000.000 ... A materially secure civilisation attempts to
expand by developing its understanding of science
and natural resource.
100000.00 ... From a materially secure base, the expanding
civilisation with an understanding of some science
and technology attempts to negotiate the pitfalls
of supply and demand as it attempts to exploit its
1000000.0 ... A civilisation attempts to compensate for
economic variation from an unpredictable
environment, and will with proper co-ordination
of its massive energy demands, develop
100000000 ... With evolved understanding of economic and
natural laws, the civilisation manipulates the
capacity of the environment, physics, cosmology and
metaphysics/abstraction to produce secure
excesses to fuel huge areas/avenues of expansion
(needed to maintain fabric, investment and
supply) electricity etc
The latter category - 10 to the power of 7 (10000000) has as
its definition 'an evolved civilisation with secure excesses to fuel avenues of expansion'. There are, ten possible values of 10 to the 7 - these are defined below as general tendencies towards prowess of information systems, capital and technical achievement. These are very rough semantic guidelines.
1-30000000 ... Profit tends to be inactive in the exploration of
natural laws to any extent.
... The cost and benefit of developing the tools of
expansion are considered in civilisations political interest.
... Profit is invested in research and actions which
maintain civilisations expansion using natural laws and
systems uncovered. E.g. Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, Iron Age levels
of tool development and utilisation.
4-60000000 ... The agencies of research are providing insights
into improvements in the use of excesses.
... The manipulation of natural laws and efficient
information systems which maintain and preserve the
excesses of expansion is politically desirable in the
interests of civilisation. E.g. Iron Age, Middle Ages, Early Modern
levels of tool development and utilisation.
... The profitable political and economic use of
natural laws and of effective administration is uncovered.
7-99999999... The control of natural laws and information is
institutionalised in the interests of expansionist policies.
Profit from excesses is channelled into agencies
which are developing control of natural systems which are
providing a technological and economic coherence to the
evolution and expansion of the civilisation.
.. The laws of nature, science and information are on tap for
politically desired directions in civilisations evolution
e.g. Renaissance – Industrial and Information Revolution levels
of tool development and utilisation.
The results show the peaks and troughs of Egypt, Greece & Rome, the Dark Ages, the climb of the Renaissance and the Hitek of the 20th Century and shortly thereafter a calamitous plunge from the heights of high tek literally back to the stone age.
This 2013AD plunge was predicted by the Mayans.
If, however, resources are introduced from other planets - the picture can be made to change.
In this work, I have managed to reduce 12 millennia of human existence down to a few lines of code. We have been toiling against all the odds to assemble a civilisation that will reach for the stars.
It has taken War and Evil, subterfuge and sabotage, temptation, betrayal, evil telepathy, disinformation and contempt, poison and death to keep us down.
The Aliens that do so - realised a long time ago that the Human Race would eventually come to fruition.
Our entire belief system can be presented in seven lines of logic and our entire history can be presented in 6 lines of code in basic - isn’t it scary how simple life really is ?
Know one thing - that 12,000 years ago the Aliens may have started out with Macrohard Human version1.0a, but even they must have managed a couple of upgrades since ??
Childe’s concept of an ‘Urban Revolution’ in elucidating the relationship between technological innovations and the emergence of cities in the ancient Near East is very useful and still stands out today as an enduring set of constructs. The basic aspects of the pains and pleasures of biochemical social philosophy that aid the conceptualisations of aversions and rewards propounded by the Utilitarian school of John Stuart Mills remains to me as basic a metaphysical statement about the character of society as fire is warm or it is too dark to read.
At a more epic and more socially detached and disassociated level of social commitment though, and with the broad and perhaps even eventual use of set theory and great study may eventually prove useful as an insight into individual social contribution and depth of spirit.
There follows a proposed set of better civilised ethics that should address the stark realities on offer by Mills and other Existentialist educations.
THE PHILOSOPHY OF CIVILISATION
THE GRACES OF EVOLUTION, represent a core of ethical belief which is thought by the author to be central to the founding of a Civilisation from fragmented factions, the undernourished, underloved and undereducated. It ends with a few general rules for the interaction of the Scottish Race and Scottish Civilisation with Extra Terrestrial or, Ultra Terrestrial Lifeforms, and seeks to give guidelines on the dangers of ignorance and lack of recognition.
THE GRACES OF EVOLUTION . 1. The Soul and its Light is the highest gift of God's Creation. 2. Love, Dignity, Honour and Creation are its fruits. 3. No Tradition is greater than the Tradition of Love and Brotherhood inherited from God's Grace. 4. Variation is created by the gift of Life and the enactment of Love and Brotherhood amidst its suffrage, and is the Cornerstone both of Civilisation and of personal evolution. 5. The evolution of Civilisation creates Traditions and Cultures, but no fragment of Scots can claim ascendance on the basis of manufactured rights alone. 6. Ascendant Humanity has the highest state of Grace, and all Tradition that does not reflect the above-mentioned highest Human ideals, should not be carried forward into the future. 7. The Cultures and Traditions of Humanity are not all good. 9. The Tradition of Culture can be a celebration of Human creation and variation that is not made base by the presence of soul Failings. 10. All Humanity can benefit from the varieties of established Culture, but not from all the psychological associations imposed upon Culture. 11. Traditions have Geopolitical and resource-orientated decisions incorporated into their motivations, and often incorporate displays of territoriality and insult.
12. , however, it can embody and celebrate the unique Geographical variation and education derived from local environmental artefacts and conditions, and the dignity and suffrage and love which binds fraternity under these conditions. 13. The structural endowment of Tradition, its continuity, form, and stability are a parallel and necessary umbrella for growth and evolution,
whilst, 14. A New Temple of Tradition should be built from the Old: a vehicle for future Human Evolution, untouched by the bias of History or Elitism, built upon the Cornerstone of Fraternity - 15. It is the Temple of the Soul built upon the Tradition of Love.
THE TRADITION OF ELITISM . 16. The endowment of limitless variation on a theme, and the capacity for creative synthesis with it is God's gift to individuals. 17. The synthesis of Society is both a logical and spiritual priority. 18. Society provides a secure umbrella for creativity and consciousness. 19. The exclusion of variation and creative synthesis from society is Elitism. 20. Elitism is usually justified in terms of 17. I.e. being a stronger aid to social synthesis and evolution, and, a social necessity.
21. It disagreeably follows in terms of Elitism that; Society must not be permitted to provide a secure umbrella for all forms of creativity, and from
16; - AND also in Elitism 22. All individuals are not endowed with discernible gifts from any Good God. 23. All souls honouring; love, dignity, honour and creation are not included in any or every elite. 24. The creative synthesis of both honourable and dishonourable souls are excluded from an Elite - 25. Some creative synthesis is more valuable than other creative synthesis. 26. All valuable creative synthesis takes place within an Elite. 27. All creative synthesis that has substandard values together with all dishonourable creative synthesis is allocated an undesirable status.
28. Contrary to elitism, however, The evolution, expansion and adaptation of society to the limitless variation of planetary and dimensional lifeform themes requires honourable and adaptable values. 29. No one Elite recipe for the values of consciousness is infinitely applicable to all Planetary and sub-atomic states. 30. Some non-elite values are substandard to Earth's emergent, material time-space locality may elsewhere predominate with
excellence over a preconceived Elite Recipe. 31. The needs of the Race are best served by not restricting honourable creativity to the confines of an elite. 32. Elites are an undesirable Human Tradition that discriminate between Cultural attributes - and cause conflict: 3. No Tradition is greater than the Tradition of Brotherhood inherited from God's Grace.
THE TRADITION OF CONFLICT 33. Conflict is a Traditional property of Matter and organised systems, inherited by the Race. 34. The success of any organised system, its coherence, stability, longevity, is based upon its competitive properties. 35. All conflict is over direct acquisition of energy rights, or indirectly, over 'meta' - energy tools (ideologies). 36. The evolution of energy metatheory (socio-economic information) has or will remove direct human conflict from the arena of biological stress and competition into software and vehicles of mechanisation. 37. Metatheories are the ultimate vehicles of Conflict 38. The better the metatheory – the greater the accessibility of Stellar and Cosmic resource to the proprietor Race. 39. The better the resource acquisition - the more sophisticated an umbrella for Racial creativity and synthesis. 17. The synthesis of society is both a logical and spiritual priority for those who agree to do so.
40. With the aid of good metatheory, Biological conflict can be raised to the level of Philosophical debate, where the Tradition of Conflict is transcended by the Tradition of Love, and the Tradition of Elitism is refuted.
THE TRADITION OF HONOUR . 41. The purpose of personal life is to honour and acknowledge the potential of the body we inhabit. 42. The potential for inner growth and balance and the outer reflections of our efforts to find equilibrium, form the basis of our personal life and behaviour. 43. Bringing our potential to the fore is to acknowledge our Spiritual, intellectual and Social needs. 44. The purpose of Society is to honour and acknowledge the potential of the Bodies and Spirits of the people we interact with in our agreed Society. 45. The form of communication such acknowledgement should take, should not compromise the vulnerability of others in their efforts to grow.
46. This is honourable behaviour, part of the Tradition of Love.
THE TRADITION OF EMERGENT CONSTRUCTS . [EC]
47. Each emergent construct [EC] has the right to;
food, shelter, medicine, education and social commune at all scales of physical, biological or social information, or energy 48. Each [EC] has a right to be honoured and loved. 49. Each [EC] has a right to participate in the Traditions of Culture, Honour and Love at all scales of Being 50. Each [EC] has the right, through education and love, to recognise and reject dishonourable Traditions (c.f. Elitism) 51. Each [EC] has a right to learn its special place in the Cosmos and to have their Spiritual Destiny identified should they agree to be interested in our society. 52. Each [EC] has the right to be given the understanding of Physical and Spiritual Relativity, in terms of our personal Covenant with God and with Society should they agree to be interested.
For these are the heirlooms of Evolution in our agreed social constructs.
THE TRADITION OF TRUST . 53. The fruits of love are; the Tradition of Birthing Constructs, the growth of Culture and Fraternity, and, both personal and social evolution. 54. The evolution and continuity of social structure encourages trust to appear. 55. To trust is to place one's vulnerability in the hands of others. 56. To love is to nurture trust by; sacrifice, example, honour and courage. 57. The synthesis of such bonds and, 17. The synthesis of society, are both a logical and spiritual priority, for in this way - 18. Society provides a secure umbrella for creativity and consciousness; an environment in which - 58. The Tradition of Trust will flourish because the Graces of Evolution are attainable within such social structure.
THE TRADITION OF JUSTICE . 59. Justice illuminates both personal and social responsibility. 60. To be Just, or to pass judgement on an offence against the Social Trust is to assess the dishonour of such an offence and determine the degree to which the Social Trust has been compromised. 61. The Social Trust is dependent on and nurtured by the behaviour of Physical Laws and material and social integrity and our state of social commune and covenant. Such that the maintenance Of life, and society and the consequent appearance of equilibrium, cohesion and nurture would Enhance our personal and social Covenant with Society and God.
62. To withhold from an individual the rights to universal nurture provided by the Fraternal Offices of Society by singular or co-operative actions is an offence against the Tradition of Birth, Honour and the Social Trust. 63. The repair and shifting of equilibria in any elite or non-elite system must be legitimate. 64. Justice is the instigation of the most evolved form of good for the greatest period of time. 44. The purpose of society is to honour and acknowledge the potential of the bodies and spirit of the people with whom we interact. 65. Justice serves the Tradition of Love and Brotherhood. 66. Justice maintains the evolution of the Social Graces through the maintenance of universal social structures.
THE TRADITION OF COSMIC LOVE . 67. All energy is the Gift of God. 68. Some energy is unavailable for use. 69. All energy has no beneficial property (time [n]) 70. Some properties of energy are beneficial 71. Some beneficial properties of energy are exclusive. 72. No beneficial properties of energy are universally beneficial. 73. There are some attractive properties worth seeking. 74. As these allegedly beneficial energies or beings are in unfamiliar/alien or unrecognisable formats - there are some stresses to extant human identity. 75. No format is universal, but some formats (Lifeforms) are Traditional to some formally constituted media (atomic chemistry, material organisation/energy shells and processes) 76. All formats are the Gift of God. 77. All souls are the Children of God. 78. Recognition is an honourable quest. 79. Some recognition is temporarily disabled (sensory debility/biologically) 80. No universal recognition process is ever fully functional. 81. All variety is unrecognisable. 82. All souls are unrecognisable. 83. All Love is postulated (Assumed) 84. Lack of recognition
is ignorance. 85. Indulgence, premeditated engagement with nihilistic interactions and ignorance is Evil. 86. Evil is an offence against all dignity for it postpones creation, nurture and evolution. 87. No Evil is beneficial. [to civilisation] 88. Ignorance has no total control over a chaotic system/ Lifeform/Format. 89. Uncontrollable energy formats/beings are problematic.
90. All problematic formats/beings have a useful context (elsewhere) 91. Some recognisable formats/beings have no Scottish honour per given constitution of Format - their being out of context to the situation they currently inhabit. 92. Energy Constitution and physical presentation of beings is an
Ethical problem, centred within the chosen media of the representation. We may not recognise or understand who or what we see, but we Must be relating to the event in some way for it to be seen at all. It is for us and or society to discern
the context of the contact 93. The Utility and ability to Love of a
decontextualised lifeform can only be alleged and never fully understood - thus is a greater risk to the Human Graces of Evolution - if not this Beings’ own evolutionary prospects. 94. Unrecognisable constitution of beings and their
representation requires a format and media with which to communicate, although such may be dangerous to Human Society if illegitimate. 95. Some problematic Lifeformats are sent elsewhere by the energy constraints/cosmic impossibility of constituting a Format in the physics of this time/space 96. Such Formats are not necessarily ethically/morally viable in a human context. 97. Lack of human social responsibility for the values and behavioural impact of such decontextualised LifeFormats is attributable to senescence and social flaw. 98. The acquisition of flaws is problematic. 99. The loss of ability and variation comes with the acquisition of flaws. 100. A Plurality of flaws is an imposed Hell. 101. The imposition of flaws on a sensitive e.g. Scottish condition can itself become a calloused and restrictive casing of turbulent probabilities and dissipated lifeforce/creativity - which could detain human evolutionary progress [cf. 'Karma'] as the soul moves between and operates each shell/incarnation it e.g. A ‘Birth’ inside an insensitive 'mechanism'./'a low tech' Cyborg or Clone 102. Some mechanisms are irrelevant to soul evolution 103. All mechanism has contextual or re-contextualised use within society. 104. Ethics, Law and Love should decide if a mechanism can Nurture in a Scottish context 105. Some mechanisms have restricted use. 106. All energy has mechanical properties. 107. The Nurturing Energies of the Cosmos is God's Gift. 108. The Tradition of Love, Law, Justice, Honour, Birth etc are the recognisable ethics of the physical and social format agreed of choice by Society.
The driving engine of urban revolution modelled by V G Childe, remains today one of the best explanations for the western spread of toolmaking social organisations and civilisations from Mesopotomia. It tends to substantiate a constant driving ergonomic and painful application of bone and sinew against heavy rocks, usually not always an option that one could avoid in between tea breaks at the temple Quarry.
Childe’s ‘urban revolution’ is a monocausal theory of city emergence. This theory places the onus on technology, described as the “engine of historical change,” as the only significant factor in the emergence of cities. Childe understood the establishment of cities during an urban revolution to be driven by the momentum of technological innovations (e.g. in particular metallurgy) dating from the Neolithic Age (ca. 9000 B.C.E.) onwards. It can be argued, however, that neither the Neolithic, the Urban, nor indeed, the Industrial Revolution was a sudden event. Accordingly, the period of urban ‘revolution’ from the Neolithic age can be said to have taken place over several thousand years (i.e. 9000 B.C.E. to approximately 3500 B.C.E.). Thus, although this can be called a ‘revolution’ in a broader sense, in that technology changed the face of society, it was through the intelligent adaptation by human society over time, to its emergent needs within variable environments, that these technologies arose. It is with this secondary, social aspect, at best hidden in Childe’s theory, which the social constructionists took issue and attempted to develop.
Childe’s theory is deemed relatively simplistic by this social constructionist school, whose adherents adopt a theory of more complex interaction between technological development, the environment, interest groups, and the evolution of society. For example, the social constructionism of Adams and Flannery are theories in which there are attenuating influences on technological and urban growth. Further, another adherent, Butzer, has suggested that technological adaptation to factors within the environment, e.g. climate, soil fertility, topography, etc., in other words, the overall ecology, presents unique context-driven solutions to problems.
Childe’s ‘technological determinism’ appears simple because it suggests that once scientific and technological ideas and processes are identified as good ideas, then they would automatically be adopted by a society quite independent of any social, political or religious interests, in other words, that these ideas are ‘autonomous’. The social constructionists, on the other hand, would say that while the scientific and technological innovations, and processes that follow from such ideas, are necessary for urban evolution, they are not sufficient for its development.
Childe suggests that the division of the prehistoric period into the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages is not altogether arbitrary. These classifications are based upon the materials used to make the fundamental cutting implements and other tools of production upon which social and economic organisation are based. For example, the efficiency and durability of the tools used for the agricultural surplus would increase over time, making it possible to create and sustain the specialisation of the occupations (e.g. metallurgy, pottery, defence, construction, agricultural technology) necessary for urban trade and city growth within a particular period.
Childe’s central idea that technology is the determining factor of social change is correct in as much as tools are central to the emergence of a civilisation, such as the Neolithic, whether or not socially shaped. Technology, per se, is itself a tool. Thus, although the various technologies can be shown to be environmentally, socially and religiously shaped, with or without the shaping process, these technologies remain by default the tools of change.
Where Childe’s theory of ‘urban revolution’ appears to be weak is in his idea that urban revolution inevitably leads to city formation. For example, Catal Huyuk in Anatolia and Jericho in the Levant are two examples of very large agricultural settlements that never made quick or sustained progression into urban specialisation. Moreover, Carter (a moderate social constructionist) argues that some urban developments were restricted in their growth by impoverished soils, requiring transient cultivation methods.
The more fertile soils of Mesopotamia, however, once again give credence to the broader tenets of Childe’s ‘technological determinism’. This fertile crescent facilitated more permanent settlements and consequent urban specialisation, due to the ability of its inhabitants to solve a major problem, namely, irrigation. It has been argued by Wittfögel that Mesopotamian cities arose specifically out of the need to manage and guarantee the water supply. Emergencies arising from unpredictable spring floods necessitated great organisation of the water supply. Wittfögel suggests that this organisation (‘hydraulic determinism’) is the sole reason for the existence of Mesopotamian society. By effectively managing the unpredictable water supply the agricultural surplus amongst the fertile soils was thereby made available to the religious hierarchy. Thus, with the availability of mud bricks, its desire for empire and its vision of a heaven on earth were, at least theoretically, now possible.
Oates, in opposition to Wittfögel and Childe, states that “large scale integrated irrigation schemes did not appear in Babylonia until after the political phenomenon known as the ‘city state’ was well advanced.” She does not deny, however, that the organisation of the water supply at any social level would be a strong cohesive force.
In the case of Egypt, monocausal (e.g. hydraulic) theories of city emergence seem less likely, however, supporting better a social constructionist theory.
Social constructionism, however, is too loosely defined as an agreement that if something works and is agreed to work, then it is a useful tool. I do not intend to use ideas of social agreements in this context, though I do advocate that all tools should be socially constructed and agreed on, on the basis of perceived and empirically tested efficiency, and if necessary, in due process, falsified by the methods of empirical scientific method as outlined by Karl Popper, in ‘Conjectures and Refutations’, (1963). Unfortunately in the 20th Century, New Age pseudo-scientists, socially constructed the belief that a well packaged and advertised plastic strip-light starter motor on a pendant chain worked to scare away the television station called BBC or NBC thought that by paying large amounts of money for such items that they did in fact contain the extra terrestrial technology that they were alleged to possess. They also partly worked, as any psychological placebo would, but nevertheless under those circumstances of ‘social constructionism’ they should have kept paying their TV license as they were ultimately totally bereft of any technology that did provided a brain shield whatsoever.
In that respect then, ‘social constructionism’ is here deemed unusable as a definition, although it does pertain to the labelling and progress of a co-operative and constructive process that does not break the light barrier into the age of nuclear reactors, and safe empirical procedures and measurements, and high degrees of social investment in highly technical infrastructure dependent on narrow margins of tolerance within the turnover of sophisticated components.
Records recently excavated in Egypt suggest that water rights and issues (e.g. disputes, surveys, regulations) were managed by local interests, classes and social groups, rather than by the state hierarchy. Moreover, the social, environmental and religious shaping of its society and technologies in ancient Egypt generated a very different form of urban specialisation and hierarchy from that of, say, Sumeria, due to Egypt’s relatively secure geographical isolation. Regular, predictable floods enabled a religious caste to form, who in turn acted as guarantors of the continuity of the flood cycle, an example of Childe’s monarchical regime claiming “magical powers to influence the natural order” of the life-giving flood cycle. Subsequent evolution of surveying and information technology enabled a large workforce and agricultural surplus to be monopolised by the religious hierarchy, who were then able to build in stone on a huge scale. Thus, in the building of pyramids, palaces and religious monuments, the religious beliefs of the ‘divine’ monarch and priestly caste shaped Egyptian society along the lines of the ‘Rank-based’ society suggested by Flannery.
In Egypt the agricultural surplus and urban technologies, unlike Childe’s technologically driven ‘Urban Revolution’, were well under social control. However, the acquisition of technologies in Egypt by diffusion from Mesopotamia (e.g. irrigation, building, metallurgy, etc.) does lend itself to the assumption in Childe’s thesis of the obvious advantage of the new techniques, processes and solutions, which ripple outwards from centres of high achievement, notably from Mesopotamia. On the other hand, the idea of diffusion does not work well with regard to Egypt’s boat-building trade. This Egyptian technology, rather, lends itself to the idea that unique technologies emerge as adaptations to unique environments, in that Egypt was later at the forefront of shipping and sail technology, finding the Nile a useful two-way transport route.
Carter suggests another view, which again moves away from Childe’s understanding of urban revolution. Carter argues that a catalyst was involved in aggregating tribal societies into a class-based territorial state, namely, authority and not technology. Thus, it was the intricately related role of temple, fortress and market place and not, for example, agricultural technology which was the cohesive force. His view is that a revolution caused by technological change has “long been abandoned” and that cities emerged over a long period of time due to social and economic changes (e.g. political upheaval and famine) and to cultural adaptation to such changes. In further acknowledging the social shaping of cities, Carter, quoting Wheatley, states that the permanence of any social institution is achieved by the process of validation by “some instrument of authority.” He suggests, therefore, that it was the hierarchical leadership of kings, priests and military leaders, which formed the catalyst that transformed a tribal society into an effective agglomerate of interests, as would Adams.
Childe, however, did not disagree with the idea that both social and technological changes had to be taken into account in any explanation of the origins of cities. Rather, the central issue between Childe and his detractors was where the main emphasis of change lay, of whether it was technology autonomously developed which instigated the formation of cities (Childe, Wittfögel) or whether this was due to social factors (i.e. Adams, Flannery, Hodges, Wheatley) or alternatively, of whether it lay in some middle territory (Carter, Oates) with the emphasis on technological innovations dependent upon social or environmental factors.
How useful is Childe’s concept of ‘Urban Revolution’? In the cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in the Indus valley, Childe’s end-based drive toward technological evolution appears to have hit a cul-de-sac, as neither of these cities progressed beyond their “technologically introspective” comfort zone. Does Childe’s view therefore fail? I would say no. His idea of an urban revolution in which the emergence of a city is driven by technology remains true to the extent that various tools were used to reach whatever level of specialisation was needed for a particular city to develop at all. However, the extent to which social factors influenced and shaped this technology, as suggested by the social constructionists, cannot be denied. That theory, I suggest, lends further elucidation to Childe’s, whose theory fails to account for the non-development of a city after it has arisen, e.g. those of the Indus Valley. Thus, the social constructionists better explain the extent and breadth to which cities developed in the ancient Near East once the diffusion of Mesopotamia’s technologies were in place. Childe’s theory, on the other hand, explains how these disseminating influences arose in the first place in the primarily hydraulic society of Mesopotamia.
 Pre-industrial Cities & Technology CHANT C & GOODMAN 1999, pub. Routledge ISBN 0-415-20076-8 (hereafter abbreviated PCT-text), pp.18-19.
2 PCT-text, p.15.
3 Ibid. pp. 15 and 44.
4 Ibid., p 45.
5 Hodges suggests that in some ancient Oligarchies technological growth was suppressed in the interests of social stability. This counters Childe’s belief that if technologies were obviously beneficial then they would automatically be used. See PCT-text, p. 17.
6 PCT-text, p. 7.
7 Ibid., p 18. Irregular floods and relative ease of incursion by invaders generated the need for static defensive works and a hierarchy to organise and utilise the water supply and agricultural surplus.
8 Ibid., p. 17.
9 Ibid., p. 43.
10 Ibid., p. 45.
11 PCT-text, p. 33.
12 Ibid., p. 44.
13 The emergence of water transport technologies in Mesopotamia may have been hampered by the inability to use either the Tigris or Euphrates for trade, since, as fast flowing rivers, they did not facilitate return boat journeys upstream. Thus, like Egypt, its unique environment and not social factors or diffusion, influenced, in this case hampered, its boat-building technology.
14 PCT-reader, ‘Pre-Industrial Cities & Technology Reader’ Chant, C ed. Pub. 1999, Routeledge, ISBN 0-415-20078-4 p. 13. Hereafter designated PCT-reader.
16 PCT-text, p. 15.
POPPER K, ‘Conjectures and Refutations’ (1963) pub. Routeledge and Kegan Paul rev.4. 1972
‘TALK TO THE HAND …’
Mayor of L.A. Arnie Schwarzenegger in the film TERMINATOR 3
The activities of a ‘Hidden Hand’ that intervenes and steers human history is a recurring complaint amongst hard done by humans.
One may find reference to it in modern conspiracy legends and myths penned by e.g. Trevor Ravenscroft in his ‘Spear of Destiny’, or Roberts and Gilbertson’s ‘The Dark Gods’, however, merely recycling historical rumour – often within the context of self-referential non-academic bibliographies is ultimately fruitless.
Having operated as an Ethnologist within the conspiracy community and having studied numerous amazing and difficult to substantiate events, it is refreshing to find that had I merely continued with a standard academic education at the UK’s OPEN UNIVERSITY, I would have discovered what the academics already knew – there’s nothing as strange as History.
OU COURSE AT308 provided two textbooks on ‘Pre-industrial Cities and Technologies’ edited by Chant and Goodman, 1999 CE.
From these various academic works, the editors drew upon the efforts of Social historians, Technologists, Archaeologists and other Scientists to assemble a History of Technology.
The three examples cited here in this paper however, disown the other academic comment and course material supplied and deployed around these textbooks in other pamphlets etc as content intended to emphasise the Open Universities’ own distinctive agenda in the social sciences as opposed to some other UK Universities specialist leanings in e.g. Philosophy, which can compete in the same scientific publications market for shelf-room in bookshops.
The two course textbooks on ‘Pre-industrial Cities and Technology’ are definitive and sufficient enough to supply all the material that I needed to write very good course essays with.
Any material quoted is representative of the ideologies that are said therein by this teaching University to give shape and form to the dilemmas of history that retarded the evolution of science and technology on this planet.
This very popular Open University Course AT308 has been very thoroughly researched and discussed and has retained its rigorous framework for technological evolution on this planet throughout the 2001 CE deployment of the contradictory and refutational archaeological data of Michael Cremo, in his startling publication ‘The hidden history of the Human Race.’
This amazing compilation of archaeological finds presented without spin and with recourse to professional scientific method could not have left even the subscribers to Charles Fort with a sceptical overview of history. Although Charles Fort’s collection of strange paranormal absurdities as witnessed can be dismissed as relative hear-say, the archaeological finds as presented by Cremo were thoroughly researched by the professional scientists who found them and carry the weight of scientific legitimacy and falsifiability.
The Open University does pay attention to such developments.
Recent AT308 Course updates in 2003 CE included the finding of a very large submersed agricultural settlement in the Indian Ocean. The alleged contradiction it provided to the paradigm supplied by V G Childe’s theory of ‘urban revolution’ – an expansion driven along a militaristic infrastructure from the Tigris and Euphrates basin, propagated by the continuity of trade and ideologies was dismissed.
Although the submerged buildings in the Indian Ocean were numerous and ordered, seasonal cultivation and pastoral needs did not particularly endear a fixed locality to inhabitants in need of food and water throughout the entire year in ancient times. This could also be deduced from the presence of tartan amongst red-haired mummies in Dolmens in northern China. People were prepared to ‘shop around’ for a good meal and beverage and place to chill in those days.
The alleged city in the Indian ocean was downgraded by the OU to a mere agricultural settlement as the morphology of the settlement and therefore its implied functions, as deduced from the oceanographic scans did not immediately confer upon it the status of a specialised and diverse place of; trade, skills, manufacture and habitation. Presumably the restaurant and shipwright signage was a bit barnacled.
Open University Course AT308, therefore, is a source of technological history that can be defined as a tool for upwardly mobile education that is both stable, and able – a definition in common with the cruise-liner ‘Titanic’.
The three examples of academic breakage that illustrate an insufficiency in scientific reason to account for the total failure of reality come from 3 continents and civilised epochs.
3. SOUTH AMERICA
1. The slow boat from China.
China, from around the time that the Huns, Goths etc were finishing off Rome circa 500 CE although also experiencing the wrath of Kublai Khan in the north of China – began a tangential approach to Civilisation that incorporated a more spiritual cosmology within the approach of civilised values to community and society.
Drawing also on Indian mathematics and astrological expertise, many important cultural exchanges took place between India and China that included the import of; architectural idiom, gunpowder components such as saltpetre, decimalisation and absolute zero.
[Chant and Goodman 1999, p. 271]
India therefore, was an important supplier of religious values, images and ideas, of opulent religious ideologies, ostentatious displays of wealth and empire. i.e. a good place to borrow some gold from in the event of a crisis.
The industrialisation of China was fraught with destructive and recurring rebellion and war, but in the main, the vast country of 4.3 million square miles was well served by extensive use of river and canal navigation and a very large stock of boats and ships over a period of 1500 years from 500 CE.
Frequent wars amongst warlords with the resources and aspirations to build and rebuild and relocate huge capital cities would have created a frequent need to replenish treasure stocks for mercenary campaigns and the industries needed to supply them.
Although it could be said that the ‘silk road’ an 8000 kilometre road running from Chang’ an in west China to Baghdad and Persia through the central Asian city of Samarakand through the Gobi desert in northern Tibet was the domain of the Mongol Hordes and blocked the opportunity to trade in the Mediterranean by overland commerce, the same could not be said of the far easier journey south around the Malaysian Peninsula and into the Indian ocean.
Consider that from the comfort of one’s own expeditionary fleet, and borne south by favourable currents and winds, there would be no absence of supplies such as fresh water on the far shorter route to the places of known treasure.
It is strange therefore to consider that from e.g. the Sui and Tang Dynasties circa 479 CE right up to the Ming and Ch’ing Dynasties circa 1840 CE that this in fact, did not happen.
It may be that various aspects of the bad things from the east intimidated the ancient warlords of China e.g. Jesuit priests, Marco Polo (1271-1295 CE), or the Black Death 1347 CE but that the origins of rich Indian treasure would not have escaped any well organised imperialist of those eras.
Whilst the Emperor Yong Le, in the early 15th century sent naval expeditions into the Indian Ocean to trade with India and explore east Africa, warmongering was rather restricted presumably because of the possibility of an Indian alliance with Mongols.
The practise of even politically correct Emperors and warlords outsourcing new resources stopped around 1433 CE.
[Chant and Goodman 1999, p. 289] relate, however, that ‘ some civil servants .. disgusted by alien .. government, withdrew from public life.’ [Chant and Goodman 1999, p. 291] continue by saying that ‘Historians have documented new Mongol threats from the north and steep increases in the cost of timber needed for shipbuilding to explain the end of naval exploration. They have noted political infighting associated with relocation of the capital…’ ‘It is hard to escape the view, however, that something deeper than politics and the price of timber was at issue. For the governing class to turn its back so abruptly on the rest of the world, and also to lose interest in science and mathematics, suggests a shift in values and a defensive, unadventurous outlook.’
[Chant and Goodman 1999, p. 282] The Chinese navy, founded in 1132 CE, had sailing ships and also paddle-powered and sail-less top armoured attack craft that could travel and manoeuvre independent of wind direction and also move in reverse. All naval vessels were equipped to catapult gunpowder bombs into the enemy. Cannonade were also in use against the Mongol hordes as early as the 12th and 13th centuries and would also have been available for military ships.
Although the Chinese navy failed the stop the 18th and 19th century European expeditions from e.g. the Dutch East India Company and then the English East India Company, there appears to be no reason whatsoever for the superior Chinese navy not to have over-ran the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf and the continent of Africa in its quest for the resources that could keep the empire defended, or some warlord in a mercenary campaign in the intervening 600 years after the founding of the navy and the recognition of its uses.
The only academic explanation for the non-conquest and non-exploitation of the Indian ocean, the Arabian gulf and East Africa offered by leading academics is of a ‘defensive and unadventurous’ outlook to which [Mr Regis Huc in Chant C, 1999, p. 216] would add .. ‘patient and resigned shopkeeper mentality.’
The Chinese (warlords) in their quest for the gold and treasure etc that would fuel their ambitions of conquest, conspiracy and defence never thought about the possibilities for conquest using the abundant surplus of shipping and the proven expertise available to use it.
The non-use of a proven resource base in India over a period of 700 years for the financing of huge mercenary campaigns e.g. against the Tartar and Mongol hordes, or White Lotus rebellion, because a gold hungry warlord was too lazy to send one of many thousands of ships from this vast continent to re-explore the proven treasure centres of India is ludicrous.
2. ‘A Horse, a horse, my Kingdom for a Horse …’
[Shakespeare W, King Richard III, Act 5 Scene 4.]
From ancient Sumer c.a. 3500 BCE, it took 4000 years into Europe to discover how to harness a horse for heavy loads and heavy plough by adapting an ox harness.
Getting a new take on the yoke harness used for Oxen such that a collar harness could be attached to another draft animal with less muscles in front of the windpipe appeared to be impossibly hard.
The sort of difficult discovery civilisation makes once it starts using hot drinks in the cold jars it used to drink from.
Taking 4000 years to get a handle on a horse and how it breathes, however is a bit of a stretch of credibility.
The excuse of ‘unfamiliarity with horse anatomy’ by Burford doesn’t wear in any of those war zones whatsoever.
The introduction of the heavy plough in northern Europe in the 10th century CE created the agricultural surplus necessary for the beginnings of; trade, specialisation and urban revolution that became the European Renaissance in the 15th century.
This inability to comprehend a horse over 4000 years delayed intensive cultivation and intensive social and scientific urbanisation, industrialisation and scientific invention by at least 400 years in Middle Ages Europe.
It was approximately 400 years after the introduction of the use of draft horses on the heavy plough that the Renaissance took place in Europe. [Burford A, in Chant 1999 page 29] and [White L, in Chant 1999, p 99].
Warring nobles, Goths, Huns, Mongols, Kings, Queens etc from about the time of the fall of Rome c.a. 500 CE would have been requiring supplies and heavy transport to conduct their campaigns often in the most difficult of terrain that could not always be accessed by porter or river transport. In the absence of Oxen, siege engines such as; ballista, rams, trebuchets etc and other applications of woodland for military use would have needed use of much of the spare horses from the numerous fallen in those battles.
500 years of stupidity before someone effectively straps up a horse doesn’t seem credible.
Campaign after campaign, army after army, necessity after necessity, battle after battle, retreat after retreat, sagacious investigation of supply logistics from everyone who has ever seen, eaten, butchered, harnessed, shod, ridden and or collided with a horse later, and in 500 years cannot devise a contraption to allow it to pull a heavy load without choking.
A bit much considering scorched earth warfare between petty nobles and highly organised armies probably required burger king ox steak cuisine and an overwhelming need to get half a ton of arrows etc. to point B from whatever stronghold it was required to over-winter in.
Regardless of who ate the local Oxen, with hundreds of years of recurrent necessity in anarchic Eurasia [e.g. 600 CE – 1400CE], and always plenty of unoccupied medium cavalry horses to use, in tens of thousands of combat dilemmas the military hierarchy were totally unable to harness a horse to a cart without strangling it or to invent a better harness to solve matters of large scale life and death than the Ox harness used in ancient Sumer and Rome.
There were 20th century schools of military thought that suggested that war was a driving factor in the evolution of human industry, and would cite the benefits of the cold war and the nuclear arms race as an influential factor in e.g. the electronics industry.
The arms race in the 20th century also became the space race and the subsequent development of super-light and super-tough alloys, plastics and fabrics and the process of miniaturisation could be seen to bring household benefits in; television technology, cold weather gear etc.
That however, does not take it away from the middle ages of Europe and their own early modern ways of thinking.
Burford in Chant 1999, p36, relates that oxen were sufficient for Rome, but had clearly forgotten that it was the sight of massed horseman using short composite horse bow that had seared its way across the static impediments to warfare created by Roman thinking all over northern Eurasia.
From then on, efficient mobilisation of arms and resources would be the best response to such threats, as hard-hitting light cavalry could get everywhere at short notice.
Whereas the era of the beef burger drive thru had clearly commenced – people in the dark ages clearly knew what a horse was and how it could be variously used.
3. Getting stoned in South America.
The sites and structures of the ancient Mayan civilisation in South America are impressive indeed. As are the number of new age beliefs attributed to the accuracy of sunspot predictions, the mathematics of Mayan chaos theory and other aspects of astronomy and science that seem to show, according to irrational ‘hippy’ beliefs, a penchant for design that would have got them all jobs with the George Lucas Star wars films at Hollywood.
Much as I rather empathise with the sentiment of such imagery of perhaps a golden bee that looks like an aerodynamic 20th century jet fighter in a ‘Von Daniken’ book – the very thought that petroleum engines and considerations of atmospheric friction appeared to be touted as evidence of space faring beliefs, enabled me to ignore those crystal skulls and other such at least for the time being until I could discover what it was that the population of the Mayan Empire actually did for a living.
The impractical new age of the 20th century never actually did any meaningful work and seemed to assume that neither did their spaced out space brother counterparts from ancient but spacey south America.
Myself, obviously being more of a practical sort, reckoned that such a magnificent achievement as building walls on those mountainsides that had polygonal 50 - 100 tonne blocks with angular sides that could have made a very challenging xmas party game by ronco toys – would have been hard even with the tools, metals and technologies available to the concurrent pyramid and temple builders of; Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome.
To assemble the; geometric, asymmetric, many sided, irregular, shapes and forms from which those massive walls at Cuzco and Sacsahuaman were made would take; cutting tools, hoists, ramps, pulleys, metal smelting and mining and a mathematical precision of such finesse that even today in the 3rd millennium of humanity on this planets surface, one still could not insert a razor blade between them.
Had I only but known - for the hardest edged tools that the Mayans possessed was allegedly obsidian – a volcanic glass that could be splintered to cut meat and textiles, and the bronze Aztec blades later used against Cortez, the conquistador.
Neither bronze or obsidian are hard enough to provide an impact on the metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Andes mountain chain – and whereas there may be local and regional variation within the static and drift geology, no skills within the construction industry were cited in Chant and Goodman 1999, pps. 242-251 as being able to make the tools that could cut those rocks to such precise geometric shapes. Muscle power and earthen ramps by default were cited as the cause of these incredible and massive and precise and ornate structures.
Worse still, it was with the utmost horror that I came to a shuddering stop at p. 251 of Chant and Goodman 1999.
I can only quote verbatim what I saw there …..
‘There are strong similarities to the Egyptian pyramids. Like the Pharaohs, the Incas imposed a system of compulsory labour on tens of thousands of captives. They hauled huge boulders from quarries as in ancient Egypt, used log rollers, inclined planes and bronze crowbars to move them. The precise shaping and fitting is thought to have been achieved by the constant pounding of boulders by harder stones, a continuous action maintained by a force of thousands of labourers working in shifts (Gasparini and Margioles, 1980, p324:Hardoy,1973. p.465. )
I can buy the quarry stuff where-by banging wedges into sandstone and limestone in e.g. Egypt one could isolate and dislocate a large rough hewn boulder for subsequent refinement and roll it away o rollers etc and haul it up a ramp. Also the geology of the Andean mountain chain, although predominately Igneous and metamorphic rock suggests that there was plenty of available materials to use of roughly equivalent hardness to make both tools and building materials out of.
However the organisation required to pound these massive and hard boulders into the precise polygonal shapes we today see as precisely fitting would have taken immense effort by the use of skills even if most of the civilian population worked along side the captives. [e.g. as in the Chinese canal system upgrade near 9th century Tang Dynasty, Chang’ an]
Give the hand tools used were of roughly equivalent hardness or even harder than the boulders, the rocks themselves would be in constant use and not much more than another factor of 10 or 20 % harder than the construction material. Not being diamonds, they would need constant replacement too if used ceaselessly by thousands and thousands of labourers, skilled and unskilled.
Given that there was no substance harder than this cutting tool and that the cutting tool was an arbitrary shaped rock of useful size, shape and weight for use in this sort of construction, it would mean that the supervisors on these projects would need a relative army of tool searchers to acquire tools of the right size and weight.
As the local stone tools got used up, gradually, the search would have to widen to keep an army of thousands and thousands of workers working efficiently in shifts and moderately supplied with food and water.
Not every stone found that was hard enough could be of use to deliver efficient craftsmanship
The logistics of such an undertaking beggar belief. If the hand-tools sourced were too soft or too heavy or too bulky, then the project
would slow down and the labour force would expire.
I am aware of the Scottish saying that ‘a bad workman always blames his tools’ but then at the same time – not everyone was born to cut surfaces in rock like they were brain surgeons.
Perhaps it was the jealous cynic in me – but that’s a lot of guys standing around with a sore arm for days on end being unable to eat. I suppose that they would not come to any ‘arm.
However, the crème de la crème of anaemic academic investigation still sticks with the heavy rock theory instead of taking the light sabre approach for the 21st century.
In conclusion it is my belief that the human academic paradigm cannot adequately explain or account for the distribution and assets of ancient civilisation on this planets surface.
 Pre-industrial Cities & Technology (hereafter abbreviated PCT-text), pp.18-19.
 PCT-text, p.15.
 Ibid. pp. 15 and 44.
 Ibid., p 45.
 Hodges suggests that in some ancient Oligarchies technological growth was suppressed in the interests of social stability. This counters Childe’s belief that if technologies were obviously beneficial then they would automatically be used. See PCT-text, p. 17.
 PCT-text, p. 7.
 Ibid., p 18. Irregular floods and relative ease of incursion by invaders generated the need for static defensive works and a hierarchy to organise and utilise the water supply and agricultural surplus.
 Ibid., p. 17.
 Ibid., p. 43.
 Ibid., p. 45.
 PCT-text, p. 33.
 Ibid., p. 44.
 The emergence of water transport technologies in Mesopotamia may have been hampered by the inability to use either the Tigris or Euphrates for trade, since, as fast flowing rivers, they did not facilitate return boat journeys upstream. Thus, like Egypt, its unique environment and not social factors or diffusion, influenced, in this case hampered, its boat-building technology.
 PCT-reader, p. 13.
 PCT-text, p. 15.
 Ibid., p 20. The reasons for this have been put down to a lack of stimulation from trade and its relative geographical isolation.
 E.g. hierarchy, religion, culture and geography.
 PCT-text, p. 14.